Summer Olympics 2020




Summer Olympics 2020

The Tokyo Summer Olympics is the 32nd edition of the Olympics and thus is also referred to as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad. Summer Olympics 2020 is an upcoming prestigious event that is scheduled to be held next year between July 24, 2020, and August 9, 2020. Some sports will be starting on 22nd of July itself to host the qualifying for the main draw. Total of 206 nations is expected to be a part of the Multi-Sporting event, qualification for which is underway.

An estimated number of about 11,100 participants will be contesting in the next year’s Summer Games from across the World. Capital of Japan, Tokyo will be the host city of the Summer Olympics for the first time since 1964.

Sports at Olympics 2020
The Tokyo Summer Olympics 2020 will have 33 sports being played throughout the event. The official program for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC Executive Board on 9 June 2017 with a notion of making the games accessible to all the youths and female participants.

Five new games have also been included in the list of the next year’s Olympics i.e., Baseball, Karate, Softball, Sport Climbing, Surfing & Skateboarding. These games will be making their debut in the Olympics that will also engage 474 more athletes. Here is the complete list of all the 33 sports that will be a part of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.

Aquatics (swimming, diving, synchronized swimming, water polo) Archery Athletics
Badminton Baseball/Softball Basketball
Boxing Canoe Cycling (Track, Road, Mountain bike, BMX)
Equestrian Fencing Football
Golf Gymnastics (Artistic, Rhythmic, and Trampolining) Handball
Hockey Judo Karate
Modern/ Pentathlon Rowing Rugby
Sailing Shooting Skateboarding
Sport Climbing Surfing Table Tennis
Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon
Volleyball (Indoor & beach) Weightlifting Wrestling(Greco Roman & Freestyle)


Till now, 103 National Olympic Committees have qualified for the next year’s Summer 2020 games. As things stand, more nations and participants are also on the verge of qualification. The list also includes the number of athletes participating from their respective nations:

Nations No. of Participants
Algeria 2
Angola 14
Argentina 23
Australia 91
Austria 6
Azerbaijan 2
Bahamas 5
Bangladesh 1
Barbados 2
Belarus 11
Belgium 4
Bosnia & Herzegovina 2
Botswana 2
Brazil 82
British Virgin Islands 1
Bulgaria 8
Burkina Faso 1
Burundi 2
Canada 60
Cayman Islands 1
Chile 4
China 93
Chinese Taipei 8
Colombia 8
Croatia 14
Cuba 7
Cyprus 4
Czech Republic 9
Denmark 26
Djibouti 1
Ecuador 4
Egypt 12
Eritrea 2
Estonia 2
Fiji 12
Finland 4
France 75
Georgia 1
Germany 73
Ghana 2
Great Britain 97
Greece 17
Grenada 2
Guatemala 8
Guyana 1
Hong Kong 7
Hungary 21
Iceland 1
India 11
Indonesia 3
Iran 2
Ireland 6
Israel 17
Italy 80
Ivory Coast 2
Jamaica 6
Japan (Host) 306
Kazakhstan 7
Kuwait 2
Kyrgyzstan 1
Latvia 3
Liberia 1
Liechtenstein 1
Lithuania 10
Luxembourg 3
Malaysia 6
Mexico 23
Moldova 6
Mongolia 2
Namibia 1
Netherlands 46
New Zealand 64
Niger 1
North Korea 2
Norway 11
Peru 4
Poland 49
Portugal 8
Qatar 2
Romania 25
Russia 86
Rwanda 1
Samoa 1
Serbia 30
Slovakia 3
Slovenia 4
South Africa 16
South Korea 21
Spain 71
Sweden 43
Switzerland 17
Tanzania 2
Thailand 4
Trinidad and Tobago 6
Turkey 8
Uganda 11
Ukraine 25
United States 174
Uruguay 1
Uzbekistan 2
Venezuela 1
Vietnam 1
Zambia 1


The number of nations and participants are subject to change as some countries and players are yet to qualify following their qualifying games.

Total of 2,04,680 applications has been received for volunteering in the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The applications have been duly received by the organizing committee. Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019 and training will take place on October 2019. The volunteers at the venues will be known as “Field Cast” and the volunteers in the city will be known as “City Cast”.

Tokyo Olympics 2020 has a new Emblem that was unveiled on 25th April 2016. It was designed by Asao Tokoro, an artist by profession who won the nation-wide design contest for the design of Emblem of Tokyo Summer Olympics 2020. The emblem is an indigo-colored with checkboard pattern, ring-shape. The design of the logo indicates the elegance and refined sophistication epitome of Japan.

Tokyo Olympics 2020’s official Mascot is called Miraitowa. The word Miraitowa has been derived from the Japanese words ‘Mirai’ meaning Future and ‘Towa’ meaning Eternity. This name has been chosen to promote a future full of eternal hope in the hearts of people all over the world. Created by Japanese artist Ryo Taniguchi. The checkered design on both mascots is inspired by the official logo of the Event. The mascot was officially announced on 22 July 2018. It was a very interesting process as it was selected by hosting a logo making competition across the country. The blue-checkered mascot embodies both traditional and futuristic touch echoing the concept of “innovation from harmony”. The mascot logo is expected to generate around $130 million (¥14.4 billion) as the revenue to finance the Tokyo Olympics 2020.

Tokyo Olympics 2020 has adopted a unique method for crafting their medals. Medals have been made out of recycling the metals, that was done by the Tokyo Organizing Committee in association with Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and NTT Docomo. They announced, “Tokyo 2020 Medal Project” to collect small electronic devices such as used mobile phones from all over Japan. This project makes Tokyo 2020 the first in the history of the Olympic and Paralympics Games to involve citizens and to manufacture the medals using recycled metals. Approximately 5000 medals have been produced from the small electronic devices that were contributed from people all over Japan. A design competition for the medals was also announced on December 2017. The winning designs were selected after a nationwide competition open to both professional designers and design students. A specially assigned selection panel had a difficult task of whittling down more than 400 entries before settling on the ideas.  The design of the medal that was finally selected was created by Junichi Kawanishi.

Collection Period
From 1 April 2017 to 31 March 2019

Amount of Devices Collected
Municipal Authorities across Japan made continuous and long-standing efforts to collect material. Amount collected authorities across Japan (used small electronic devices including mobile phones): Approx. 78,985 tons
Amount collected by NTT Docomo shops across Japan (used mobile phones only): Approx. 6.21 million used mobile phones

Final Amount of Metals Collected
Gold: Appx. 32kg
Silver: Appx. 3,500kg
Bronze: Appx. 2,200kg

Participating Municipalities
1,621 municipalities
Of the 1,741 cities/towns/villages nationwide, over 90 percent participated.

The Olympic flame is a globally-recognized symbol of the Olympics and the flame of the torch relay exemplifies Olympic ideals of peace, unity, and friendship. The Olympic torch for the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 incorporates several elements of Japanese culture, and reinforces Tokyo 2020’s Olympic Torch Relay concept: “Hope lights our way”.

The concept is designed to bring the Japanese people together, supporting and encouraging one another. The shape of the torch resembles a Japanese traditional “Sakuramon” cherry blossom emblem. The body of the torch features five cylinders that represent petals of the beloved flower. Flames are generated from each “petal”, which are united in the center of the torch, lighting the way with greater brilliance. A number of technological innovations are deployed in the combustion section that lights the torch. The sustainability initiative which has played such a big role in the creation of the uniforms of the Olympic Torch Relay will be produced in part using recycled plastic bottles.

After its traditional lighting in Greece, the 2020 Tokyo Olympics torch relay will begin in Naraha, Fukushima on 26 March 2020.


No. Venue Name Sports/Events
1. Olympic Stadium a) Opening & Closing Ceremonies
b) Athletics
c) Football
2. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium Table Tennis
3. Yoyogi National Stadium Handball
4. Nippon Budokan a) Judo
b) Karate
5. Imperial Palace Garden Athletics(race walk)
6. Tokyo International Forum Weightlifting
7. Kokugikan Arena Boxing
8. Equestrian Park Equestrian (Dressage, Eventing, Jumping)
9. Musashino Forest Sports Plaza a) Badminton
b) Modern Pentathlon (Fencing)
10. Tokyo Stadium a) Football
c)Modern Pentathlon (Swimming, Fencing, Riding, Laser-run)
11. Musashinonomori Park Cycling
12. Ariake Arena Volleyball
13. Ariake Gymnastics Centre Gymnastics
14. Ariake Urban Sports Park Cycling (BMX Freestyle, BMX racing, skateboarding)
15. Ariake Tennis Park Tennis
16. Odaiba Marine Park a) Aquatics (Marathon swimming)
b) Triathlon
17. Shiokaze Park a) Volleyball
b) Beach Volleyball
18. Aomi Urban Sports Park a) Basketball(3×3)
b) Sports Climbing
19. Oi Hockey Stadium Hockey
20. Sea Forest Cross-Country Course Equestrian (Eventing)
21. Sea Forest Waterway a) Canoe (Sprint)
b) Rowing)
22. Kasai Canoe Slalom Centre Canoe (Slalom)
23. Yumenoshima Park Archery Field Archery
24. Tokyo Aquatics Centre Aquatics
25. Tatsumi  Water Polo Centre Aquatics (Water Polo)
26. Makuhari Messe Hall A a) Taekwondo
b) Wrestling
27. Makuhari Messe Hall B Fencing
28. Tsurigasaki Surfing Beach Surfing
29. Saitama Super Arena Basketball
30. Asaka Shooting Range Shooting
31. Kasumigaseki Country Club Golf
32. Enoshima Yacht Harbour Sailing
33. Izu Velodrome Cycling (Track)
34. Izu MTB Course Cycling (Mountain Track)
35. Fuji International Speedway Cycling (Road Race)
36. Fukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium Baseball/Softball
37. Yokohama Baseball Stadium Baseball/Softball
38. Sapporo Dome Football
39. Miyagi Stadium Football
40. Ibaraki Kashima Stadium Football
41. Saitama Stadium Football
42. International Stadium Yokohama Football


A test event is a dress rehearsal to confirm and improve the competition and Games operation capabilities in order to ensure a successful operation during the Olympic and Paralympics Games. There will be 56 test events before the Olympic and Paralympics Games; they will be contested between June 2019 and June 2020 and will be completed before the start of the 2020 Summer Games.

“READY STEADY TOKYO” is the official brand name and logo for the test events Tokyo 2020 will be organizing. It actually conveys the excitement among the people of Japan for the next year’s Olympic and Paralympics Games. The overall message of the brand name is “We are ready for Tokyo 2020. Let’s stay focused as we move forward to a successful Games.”

The first test event is World Sailing’s World Cup Series held at Enoshima, and the last event is set to be the Tokyo Challenge Track Meet on May 2020.

Tokyo Olympics 2020 took broadcasting very seriously and in its efforts, started the search for the right partners. Many companies have come up to make the upcoming Tokyo Olympics 2020 successful by offering great deals for broadcasting the games across Japan and the rest of the world. Sony and Panasonic have partnered with Japan’s National Broadcasting Organization to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution televisions, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Italian broadcaster Radiotelevisione Italiana also announced the same to deploy 8K resolution broadcasting of the Games. In Europe, this will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC’s exclusive pan-European rights deal with Eurosport, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games in favor of Eurosport, and Russia due to a pre-existing deal with a marketer through 2024.

NBC Universal properties will broadcast the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics next year in the United States. Telecom company NTT Docomo signed a deal with Finland’s Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Olympics.

The official mascot of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics is Miraitowa. It was officially declared as the mascot of the 2020 Summer Games on 22 July 2018. The mascot dons the design with blue-checkered patterns inspired by the Games’ official emblem. Its fictional characteristics include the ability to teleport. Created by artist Ryo Taniguchi, the mascot is expected to generate around $130 million (¥14.4 billion) as the revenue to finance the Tokyo Olympics 2020 through Merchandising and Licensing deals.

Tokyo Olympics 2020 has identified Celebrities, Comedians, and Sportsperson to be made the ambassadors in order to attract an audience and create hype among the people. The ambassadors take part in the events hosted by the organizing committee to help increase recognition of the torch relay event. Here are the profiles of the official ambassadors of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics:

#1. Tadahiro Nomura
Olympian from Nara Prefecture. Gold medalist in the men’s judo 60kg category in Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004, Nomura became the first judo athlete and the first Asian athlete in any sport to win the Olympic gold medal at three consecutive Games. After his retirement, Nomura has been devoted to promoting judo both at home and abroad.

#2. Aki Taguchi
She is a Paralympian from Osaka who competed in three consecutive Games in Athens 2004, Beijing 2008 and London 2012 as a Paralympics shooter. Taguchi is engaged in activities to promote an all-inclusive society through the promotion and support of Para sport. Taguchi currently serves on the Tokyo 2020 Athletes’ Committee and the Emblem Selection Committee.

#3. Satomi Ishihara
The actress made her debut in 2003. She has been made one of the Torch Relay ambassadors for the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics seeing her Charity personality. She will be the part of the Torch relay ceremony.

#4. Sandwich Man
The comedy duo of Date and Tomizawa have been included in the list of Torch Relay ambassadors seeing their keen interest in sports and uplifting lives of the people after Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 that shook the lives and homes of the people. Their charitable work has earned them this big opportunity to be the ambassadors for the Torch Relay event at the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics.

Tokyo Olympics 2020 has selected Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronauts Soichi Noguchi and Akihiko Hoshide to enliven the Tokyo 2020 Torch Relay from the International Space Station (ISS) as official Tokyo 2020 Torch Relay Space Ambassadors for both the Olympic and Paralympics Games.

They will support and enliven the torch relay with messages sent from the International Space Station. Astronauts Soichi Noguchi and Akihiko Hoshide have been made the ambassadors for the prestigious Torch Relay ceremony.



A Tokyo 2020 ID is required to purchase tickets from the Official Ticket Website. After completing the Tokyo 2020 ID registration procedure, applicants will receive an e-mail newsletter with Games-related information including details on ticketing. The opening ceremony tickets will range from 12,000 to 300,000 ¥en. The average price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 50% of the tickets will be sold for 8,000 yen or less. Tickets for International visitors will have to visit Japan during the sale of the tickets if they want to buy the tickets offline.

In case you are not a resident of Japan and want to buy the tickets online, here is the list of all the websites where you can get the ticket packages to select from and buy:


Country Company Name Website Contact No.
Burkina Faso Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Cameroon Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Eritrea Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Eswatini Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Gambia Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Kenya Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Liberia Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Malawi Fli-Afrika Travel (Pty) Ltd. (+27)-11-718-2000
Mauritius Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Mozambique Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Namibia Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Nigeria Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Rwanda Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Sierra Leone Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Uganda Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
United Republic of Tanzania Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Zambia Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Zimbabwe Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225



Country Company Name Website Contact No.
Aruba Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Barbados Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Belize Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Bermuda Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Brazil MATCH Hospitality +55 (21) 3266 1200
British Virgin Islands Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Canada ATPI Sports Events (+1) 514-316-7012
Cayman Islands Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Chile Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Colombia Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Costa Rica Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Dominican Republic Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Ecuador Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Grenada Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Haiti Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Honduras Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Jamaica Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Mexico Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Panama Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Puerto Rico Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Saint Lucia Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
St Vincent and
the Grenadines
Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
St. Kitts and Nevis Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Trinidad and Tobago Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
United States of America CoSport/Jet Set Sports 1-877-457-4647, (+1)-908-326-2660
Venezuela Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Virgin Islands Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662



Country Company Name Website Contact No.
Bangladesh Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Brunei Darussalam Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Cambodia JTB (Cambodia) Co., Ltd. (+855) 23-220-428
Chinese Taipei JTB Taiwan Ltd (+886)-2-2568-3877
Hong Kong, China China Travel Service (H.K.) Limited (+852) 2998 7080
India Fanatic Sports (+91) 9325761200
Indonesia Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Jordan CoSport/Jet Set Sports 0800-22362
Kazakhstan ITC “COMPLETE SERVICE” (+7) 727 390 70 70
Lao People’s Democratic
Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Malaysia Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Mongolia Juulchin World Tours (+976) 88117181
Nepal Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Pakistan Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
People’s Republic of China CAISSA Tourism Group (+86)-10-6598-3507
Philippines Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Republic of Korea HANJIN TRAVEL Yet to be announced +82-2-726-5776
Singapore Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Sri Lanka Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Tajikistan Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Thailand JTB Thailand (66) 2230-0451
Timor-Leste Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Turkmenistan Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Vietnam Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225



Country Company Name Website Contact No.
Austria Vietentours GmbH (+43) 1 7105690 11
Belarus LLC Ticketpro +375 (29) 3983447
Belgium EVENTEAM + 32 (0)2 893 00 50
Bulgaria CoSport/Jet Set Sports 0800-46-059
Croatia CoSport/Jet Set Sports 0800-46-059
Cyprus P1. Corporate Hospitality (ATR) +31 85 1301 550
Top Kinisis Travel Public Ltd
(Sub-Distributor) +35722713713
Czech Republic Ceska olympijska a.s. (ATR) (+420) 271 730 622
IBTravel, s.r.o. (Sub-Distributor) (+420) 774 822 823, a.s. (Sub-Distributor) (+420) 774 095 840
Denmark NOC of Denmark (ATR) +4543262626
Venuepoint (Sub-Distributor) +45 70 263 267
Estonia Estravel Ltd 3726266334
Finland Elämys Group (+358)405501930
France EVENTEAM + 33 (0)9 69 39 20 16
Germany DER Touristik Deutschland GmbH (+49)-69-9588-3635
Great Britain TEAM GB LIVE (Sports Travel & Hospitality Group Limited) +44 (0)344 788 4002
Greece CoSport/Jet Set Sports 0800-46-059
Hungary Sportimadok (+36)-30-6902000
Ireland Elämys Group (+358)405501930
Israel Issta Sport LTD +(972)-3-7777-288
Italy Tre Emme by Travel Market (+39)0656337032/00393483824239
Latvia Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Liechtenstein Globetrotter Sportreisen (+41)-31-917-60-60
Lithuania PLC Novaturas 0037062612896
Luxembourg DER Touristik Deutschland GmbH (+49)-69-9588-3635
Malta Tre Emme by Travel Market (+39)0656337032/00393483824239
Monaco Monaco TOP Voyages (ATR) (+377) 97 97 23 86
Groupe Couleur (Sub-Distributor) (+33) 4 72 40 50 60
Netherlands Sunweb Sports & Events 0031-88-1030750
Norway CoSport/Jet Set Sports 0800-46-059
Poland Club Sport Travel (ATR) (+48) 22-622-99-40
Almatur Polska (Sub-Distributor) (+48) 22-825-69-08
Portugal COSMOS – Viagens e Turismo, SA (+351)-21-7248395
Romania Danco Pro Communication 40212500221
Russian Federation MATCH Hospitality AG 7(499) 658-20-18
Slovakia SATUR TRAVEL 421-903-280439
Slovenia Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Spain Issta Sport LTD +(972)-3-7777-288
Sweden CoSport/Jet Set Sports (+46)-8-400-207-01
Switzerland Globetrotter Sportreisen (+41)-31-917-60-60
The Republic of North Macedonia Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Turkey Setur Servis Turistik AŞ Ankara +903124574700



Country Company Name Website Contact No.
American Samoa KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
Australia CoSport 1-800-668-570
Cook Islands KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
The Federated States of
Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Fiji KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
Guam Cartan Tours, Inc. (+1) 310-546-9662
Kiribati Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Marshall Islands Sunworld Tours Co., Ltd. (+81)3-3498-5402
Nauru KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
New Zealand New Zealand Olympic
Travel 0800 696 596
+64 3 371 6804
Palau KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
Papua New Guinea KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
Samoa KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
Solomon Islands KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200
Tonga Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Tuvalu Kingdom Sports Group (+61) 2 9904 9225
Vanuatu KNT-CT Holdings Co., Ltd. (+81)-3-6891-9200

DO NOT Purchase tickets from unauthorized sellers or websites as it may be the violation of “Tokyo 2020 Ticket Terms & Conditions of Purchase / Terms of Use”. At the same time, the ticket would not be considered valid during the entry.

Tickets for the residents of Japan will be available at various locations and shops throughout Tokyo. And authorized websites and sellers are also selling tickets so make sure you are purchasing from them and not any third party seller or broker.

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